Poster session

Tuesday from 10.20 - 11 o'clock. All poster presentations from ID-144. Location: Spiegel- & Bruinzaal

1. The Effects of Normative Information on Commitment Making and Water Conservation

C. M. Jaeger, P. W. Schultz & A. Shepherd

Social influence strategies have shown promise in increasing pro-environmental behavior across a number of domains. Notably, normative social influence strategies have successfully targeted heavy resource-users, yet behavior changes tend to fade over time. Commitment-making strategies, alternatively, appear to lead to durable behavior change, yet often fail to engage the most resource consumptive households. The current research innovatively couples the strategies together by using normative information to induce commitment making. Compared to commitments induced via incentives, normatively induced commitments appear voluntary. The findings contribute to the commitment-making literature by examining the extent to which normative pleas are perceived as voluntary, as well as examining the impact of declining to make a commitment on subsequent household water consumption. In addition, the intervention tests the extent to which high resource-using households can be motivated to make durable pro-environmental behavior changes.

2. Using a Card Game to Promote Energy-Saving Behaviours

J. Sugiura

In this study, we developed an educational program using a card game named “Fan Tan” to encourage energy-saving behaviours in the households of study participants. Students from two universities participated in the development of the program as part of their curriculum. The university students selected 52 behaviours as contents of the card game that could be encouraged to conserve energy in individual households, evaluated the difficulty of practicing these behaviours, and assigned values to each card based on the relative difficulty of each task. The rule of the card game was designed simply so as to understand not only adults but also children. The card game was then used to study the energy-saving behaviours of 49 parent–child pairs. At the end of the card game, each participant chose one card from all of the energy-saving behaviours and placed a sticker on the card to signify the participant’s commitment to practice that behaviour at home. Thereafter, the participants brought the card game home and played with their family members. The participants reported that the game-playing experience increased parent–child communication about energy-saving behaviours and increased both conservation awareness and efforts to conserve energy.

3. Influence of intercultural contacts on peoples’ consumption behaviour

A. Römpke

The purchase of eco-friendly and fair produced products can be regarded as an instance of prosocial behavior at a global level. Based on Allport's contact hypothesis (1954) opportunities to encourage such behavior have become easier by the globalization of social networks. As intergroup communication has been strongly facilitated by the use of the internet, intergroup contact is now possible with few resources. This research tests whether the creation of international internet contacts is able to encourage the consumption of sustainable versus unsustainable products from the continent of origin of the contact persons. For this purpose, an experimental design is presented, consisting of a simulated internet chat and a subsequent purchase decision scenario with the independent factors nationality of the contact person, price, level of sustainability and origin of the product. In line with expectations, sympathy towards the imagined chat partner could be induced, and participants showed particular preferences for cheap and sustainable products. Some limitations notwithstanding, the study method developed here provides the foundation for experimental research in the field of contact and consumption on a global scale.

4. Effects of environmental stressors on annoyance, prevailing strain and heartrate variability

K. Neuheuser, V. Schochlow, & M. Knöll

Environmental stress is among the serious health problems modern societies are faced with. Recent research focused on noise as a main environmental stressor with increased levels of annoyance and resulting effects on health-related quality of life. Further impairments from environment can be caused by crowding, light or colors. Health effects most frequently described are annoyance, sleep disturbance, cardiovascular diseases and psychological distress. The present study was conducted by researchers of architecture, psychology and computer science. 16 benches in a public park were analyzed in terms of sound levels, spaciousness, crowding and pedestrian flow. Participants sitting on a bench for 5 minutes noted sound sources, assorted these sound sources by individual perceived loudness and rated the level of annoyance. Additionally a Questionnaire on prevailing strain was employed and heartrate variability was measured. Sound sources caused by men were rated significantly less annoying than machine-made sound sources. Lower sound levels showed a positive relationship to prevailing strain. Further data collection is in progress and will be analyzed and presented. Therefore, multidisciplinary approaches are asked to investigate potential coherences and develop health strategies.

5. Green-tinted glasses: A qualitative investigation of ‘green’ identity in Australia

H. V. Uren, P.L Dzidic, & B.J Bishop

Recent research has shown that many Australians see pro-environmental behaviour as desirable, and identify as being ‘green’. However when compared to other countries, Australians score poorly on pro-environmental behaviour measures, engaging mostly in tokenistic ‘green’ actions, and, demonstrate low levels concern for the environment. In order to create genuine long term change, efforts must be made to deconstruct how ‘green identity’ is understood, and, manifests within the context of a dominant Western worldview. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 40 Australians who identified as ‘green’, and a causal layered analysis was undertaken. Through the examination of participants’ environmental discourse and practices, some of the deeper socio-psychological processes influencing pro-environmental behaviour were revealed. Specifically, a number of tensions were identified and related to conflicting worldviews, values, and significantly participants’ identity. These findings highlight the influence of collective cultural constructs in shaping pro-environmental behaviours.

6. The Role of Regulatory Focus in Pro-Environmental Behaviour: An Exploratory Study in the Context of Sustainable Services

D. Schaffner & U. Jüttner

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) in pro-environmental behaviour. Based on a literature review in environmental and social psychology a new conceptual framework is proposed that describes the interrelations between promotion focus, prevention focus and three dimensions (attitudes, norms and emotions) that have been proven to determine pro-environmental behaviour (Steg & Vlek, 2009). An exploratory study was conducted to investigate whether regulatory focus can be discerned in the context of pro-environmental behaviour. The study relied on 25 in-depth interviews with customers of four different sustainable services: car sharing, car pooling, recycling and renewable energy. The findings confirm a clear distinction of promotion and prevention focus regulating pro-environmental behaviour. Additionally, the data reveals that the majority of interviewees seem to be motivated through a promotion focus. Moreover, promotion focus tends to be prevalent in all three dimensions (attitudes, norms, emotion) influencing pro-environmental behaviour. Despite its limitations the paper offers a novel approach to understand individual factors underlying pro-environmental attitudes, beliefs and emotions. From a theoretical perspective, the proposed framework provides a range of avenues for further research. From a practical perspective, the paper delivers an important basis for managing sustainable services.

7. Measurement of Quality of Life in the German Context

M. Schulte, A. Blöbaum, & E. Matthies

In 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Developmentdefined a concept of sustainable development that includes economic, ecological and social aspects. Having a closer look on the social dimension, we have to take into account that the possibility for a behaviour change of individuals towards a more sustainable lifestyle would be far more likely if individuals perceive the new and more sustainable lifestyle positively and suitable to fulfil their needs. Poortinga and colleagues (2004) developed an instrument to measure social sustainability on an individual level. It captures the perceived subjective quality of life determined by a person’s surrounding environment and shows to which extent personal needs and values are satisfied. In order to test and replicate this questionnaire for the German context, we applied it in a quantitative online survey with a convenience sample (initial size n=200). Based on our findings we present first empirical results from our online-survey and will provide evidence about the applicability in Germany. We identify key determinants for quality of life in our sample and display findings of importance and satisfaction ratings by means in a two dimensional Cartesian Plane. Characteristics and group differences in our sample will be shown.

8. Is a sufficiency oriented lifestyle really more sustainable? Exploration of the relationship between sufficiency orientation and carbon footprint

C. Verfürth & E. Matthies

Reduction of CO2-emission to diminish human impact on climate change is one of the most important challenges our society is facing. As a strategy for sustainability, the concept of sufficiency is gaining attention among researchers and policy makers, especially in affluent countries. A person with a sufficiency orientation seeks to perform less energy intense behaviours and to consume less resource intense products to prevent waste of natural resources. Hence, a sufficiency oriented lifestyle seems to be a promising approach to help meeting goals of CO2-emission reduction. However, to date there is no empirical evidence for a relation between practicing a sufficiency orientated lifestyle and having a lower carbon footprint. The presented study will provide data of an online survey (initial convenience sample n = 100) that has been conducted to investigate the relationship between sufficiency orientation and a person’s carbon footprint. First results of an analysis of sufficiency oriented values and attitudes and socio demographic data in connection with a measure of the carbon footprint will be presented. The findings will be discussed regarding to whether a sufficiency oriented lifestyle can be considered to be really more sustainable.

9. Influence of individual traits and legibility of space on the image of cognitive maps of urbanized spaces

D. Maria Stryjewska & Bożena Janda-Dębek

Spatial configuration, just as the cognitive and psychological aspects of human functioning, significantly influences activity, emotions, and behaviour in a given space. The ability to create an adequate cognitive representation of an urbanized environment that contains spatial, as well as functional, semantic, and cultural codes, significantly determines human actions in a city. The presented research results are an element of a wider program, the purpose of which is to determine the individual traits linked to the cognitive functioning of humans, which influence the creation of cognitive representations of urbanized spaces. The results were as follows (N=146): (1) Men draw more detailed and more precisely the nodes and landmarks on sketch maps of streets; (2) field-independent persons draw significantly less detailed and less precise edges and paths, which may suggest a more simplified scheme of data from objects that are less important for the image of a given space; (3) persons coming from large cities mark significantly more and more precise paths and nodes than persons from small towns and villages, which may signify more ease in assimilating topography of the cityscape. (4) No differences were found between a legible and illegible street, but many statistically significant differences were detected in the drawings of legible and illegible squares. This is a very significant result from the point of view of the importance of squares as key public spaces for urban social activity. Understanding the essence of these relations will let us plan and revitalize urban spaces that fulfil not only the material, but also the emotional and cognitive needs of people.

10. Relevant acceptance criteria for the implementation of energy balancing concepts

D. Becker, A. K. Becker, & P. Schweizer-Ries

The increasing integration of fluctuating renewable energies such as solar or wind power within the German energy system requires a stakeholder-driven development of regional energy balancing concepts using energy balancing technologies to meet local balancing needs. Thus energy production and consumption become viable irrespective of place and time. On a local level the acceptance of such socio-technical concepts and technologies by stakeholders is essential for their implementation and influenced by contextual factors which differ for each technology according to certain aspects, e.g. location, environment protection or legal requirements (e.g. Zoellner et al., 2008). The aim of this research is to explore relevant factors for the acceptance of local energy balancing concepts which combine certain technologies, e.g. batteries, heat pumps or combined heat and power plants. Guided interviews were held with experts. Cost effectiveness and legal requirements seem to be key criteria for the acceptance of such concepts.  The findings were communicatively validated within a workshop with the interviewed experts and other participants.The combination of an interview and workshop method highlights the perceived factors as well as the potential to increase acceptance and acceptable solutions locally whilst putting these criteria into a ranking of relevance.

11. The relevance of Personal Norms on participation processes for local energy balancing concepts

A. K. Becker, D. Becker, & P. Schweizer-Ries

In order to produce green energy whilst serving regional energy needs, it is necessary to decentralize patterns of energy supply and develop regional solutions, e.g. energy balancing concepts that manage fluctuating supplies and are accepted by the local public. For designing such concepts, public participation is needed not only due to the direct link between participation and local acceptance (e.g. Rau et al., 2012) but also to improve the technical systems with social knowledge. Based on previous research it is indicated that personal norms for climate protection are significant for participation in climate-friendly actions and political activism. One aim of our research in a German neighbourhood community where a local energy balancing concept shall be designed is to gain a profound understanding of different levels and forms of participation, how they are perceived and to what extent they are influenced by personal norms. Thus a postal survey was sent to all private house owners in this neighbourhood community (N=71) which sampled motives on energy saving, the willingness to participate in the implementation of energy balancing concepts as well as personal norms. Results show relations between personal norms and the interests in different levels of participation in developing energy balancing concepts.

12. What Predicts Integrated Habits for Pro-Environmental Behaviours? An Analysis of the Factors of Pro-Environmental Behaviours

N. M. Aitken & L. G. Pelletier

Habits offer a potential mechanism for long-term maintenance of pro-environmental behaviours. The theoretical frameworks of habits (Bargh, 1994; Verplanken, 2006) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) were combined to predict types of repeated behaviours using habit indicators (i.e., behaviour frequency, habit strength, and behaviour interference) and propose factors related to integrated pro-environmental habits. Three cross-sectional survey studies provided strong support for the three proposed types of repeated behaviours: low habit, non-integrated repeated behaviour, and integrated habit. Results were robust across three samples, two different target pro-environmental behaviours, and replicated previous research (Aitken & Pelletier, 2014). Autonomous motivation toward the environment, perceived importance of the environment, and frequency of other pro-environmental behaviours were effective at distinguishing between behaviours that were not habitual, behaviours merely repeated, and behaviours fully internalized and habitual. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to self-determination theory and the study of habits. Interventions should take into account ways to increase autonomous motivation for the environment.

13. Conservation attitude reduces rebound effect in personal transportation

J. Urban

Potential energy savings due to increased efficiency of personal cars are being lost due to rebound effect (Sorrel et al., 2009). Otto et al. (2014) hypothesize that people who are intrinsically motivated to conserve the environment will exhibit lower tendency to increase their consumption in response to lower prices due to improved efficiency. Building on this argument, we test the hypothesis that the direct rebound effect in personal transportation is smaller among people with high conservation attitudes. We use data from a survey of transportation behaviour in the Czech Republic for gasoline-powered (N=2564) and diesel-powered (N=1419) cars. General conservation attitude is measured through GEB. Direct rebound effect is estimated from elasticity of demand for personal transportation wrt. fuel price (viz. Sorrel et al., 2009). We found rebound effect for gasoline cars to be 55% for people holding low, and only 42% for people with high conservation attitudes. Rebound effect for gasoline-powered personal transportation is 67% for people with low and 64% for people with high attitudes. People with conservation attitudes do not consume the fruit of improved energy efficiency. Such behaviour, however, is not irrational in the sense that it consistently follows the goal of conservation.

14. “The unbearable lightness of climate friendly consumption” – biased estimation & justified over-consumption

J. Tröger & R. Gaschler

Sufficiency orientation captures a motivational pattern focusing the absolute reduction of resource consumption in order to limit climate change. To foster sufficiency orientation it is meaningful to understand if and how people estimate their own consumption pattern, for instance in mobility or meat consumption, as (in-) compatible with the earth’s natural limits and if there are potential biases. We surveyed 95 students at the University of Koblenz-Landau who indicated their personal amount of consumption in six different CO2 impact relevant behaviour fields. They were also afforded to estimate the average personal consumption for a German citizen as also the required global per capita consumption measured by the earths’ natural borders. After building rank-orders, results disclose that people judge their own resource consumption to be lower than the average German per capita consumption, however, estimated both above the limits of the earth. Against our hypothesis of a quantitative similarity between both estimated average consumption and personal consumption, the average German person consumption was much higher than the personal consumption. Hence, people value their consumption to be overshooting the natural limits of the earth, however, justify their own behaviour with falling behind the average consumer behaviour. Further implications are discussed.

15. Nature Routines with Cities and Affinity with Nature

M. Giusti & S. Barthel

Urban densification is the conventional strategy adopted by post-industrial societies to cope with local and global sustainability issues. However, dense urbanization patterns are likely to limit the experience and understanding of human dependence on the ecosystem with direct consequences for sustainable practices. In this speech I present empirical studies that unfold how the set of nature routines embedded in dense urban landscapes influences the development of affinity with nature. In the first empirical study we assess social-ecological features in Stockholm that afford nature experiences using available GIS data, and we then evaluate how such natural experiences are part of the outdoor routines that children have in preschools. We consequently investigate how such nature routines associate with children's affinity with the biosphere. Preschools with routines closer to nature have children who are more empathetic and concerned for non-human life forms, and more cognitively aware of human-nature interdependence. The preliminary results of a second study suggest that children with experience in nature conversation evaluate differently their relationship with nature. These findings will be combined to inform how urban design affords connecting routines with significant power to nurture the emergence of sustainable practices.

16. Towards Better Homes: The Influence of the Visual and the Direct Physical Accessibility on the Sense of Control of Saudi Women in the Home Environment

A. H. Mahdaly, D. Pati, S. Parkinson, & L. S. Duemer

This study examines the typical Saudi home as a personal, emotional, and cultural setting, especially on the interactions between the physical design and perceived control of the homemaker. Owing to the scarcity of published literature on Saudi homes, American homemakers were included to provide a baseline. With the ongoing transformations in women’s role in Saudi Arabia, there is a perception that traditional home designs may not afford the appropriate sense of control; and due to the interacting layers of socio-cultural-religious forces, understanding the moderating role of the home is vital to the ongoing changes. The study investigated one narrow, albeit critical, influence of home design on ones sense of control – visual and direct physical accessibility between sets of rooms. Ten subjects, five Saudis and five Americans, examined 171 room sets, and provided qualitative responses on how each access affects their sense of control. Three main themes emerged: 1- Openness, 2- Proximity, and 3- Separation. Data suggest that although the Saudi home is substantially more complex than the American, a class of spaces that we term as “ Neutral Rooms” may represent the ideal solution for optimizing sense of control, without ignoring cultural-religious traditions, during the transition of the Saudi women.

17. Promoting sustainable food consumption – a field study to identify relevant drivers for and to implement a tailored intervention alleviating domestic food waste

K. Schmidt & E. Matthies

Domestic food waste greatly contributes to the environmental impacts of the global food industry, like the use of limited natural resources (e.g. water), extensive effects on biodiversity and a substantial emission of greenhouse gases. We conducted a field study to identify relevant drivers for and to implement an intervention strategy alleviating domestic food waste. Based on the integrative influence model of pro-environmental behavior (Matthies, 2005) we used a pre-post-control design. An online-survey with 130 German participants assessed relevant determinants (e.g. perceived environmental consequences of domestic food waste) and current food waste-related behaviors (e.g. purchase, storage or disposal behavior). Afterwards, tailored information (i.e. individual composed action knowledge) was provided in the experimental group. Four weeks after the intervention, a follow-up assessment was conducted. Apart from an improvement in the perceived abilities to reduce own food waste, results indicate several moderate and strong changes in various food waste-related behaviors, like the preparation of grocery shopping, spontaneous purchases or further processing of leftovers after the intervention. Therefore our study shows that the use of tailored information can be an effective strategy to improve food waste-related behaviors and by this way to reduce domestic food waste and its environmental impacts.

18. Assessing Comfort in Open-Plan Offices on Campus – Which Comfort Parameters Matter?

K. Knecht, N. Bryan-Kinns, & K. Shoop

Comfort is a highly individual and adaptive process, which is influenced by a multitude of environmental and social factors. In the scope of a pilot study, we conducted an online survey among PhD students, most of whom have desk spaces assigned in open-plan offices on campus, to uncover issues affecting their comfort from an individual perspective based on quantitative as well as qualitative information. We found that social aspects were cited most often as positive qualities of the workplace, whereas environmental factors were most often cited as sources of discomfort, with thermal and acoustic discomfort as well as matters of cleanliness leading the way. Participants indicated that some of these parameters also influenced their use or avoidance of their workplace, which reflected in their frequency of use and the use of other places to work. We consequently identified decision making processes based on indoor environmental quality parameters taking place in the choice of a work place as a possible area for further investigation, which could include looking at activity and work patterns alongside individual preferences.

19. Exploration of effective design factors on sociability (Chizar Local community as case study)

N. S. S. Monfared, H. Hashemnejad, & A. Yazdanfar

Many recent studies on environmental Psychology focus on relationship between physical space and social interaction. The base of these researches is that the features of physical spaces as spatial systems could effect on communal interaction of users.  In this article, the summarized table of the design principles that could effect on the sociability of people was provided through literature review. Sustainable development emphasizes that local community is the opportunity for encouraging people to socialize. Therefore, one of the local communities of Tehran with good sense of community is selected as case study. Its name is Chizar community. The questionnaire was prepared based on the derived design principles from literature review and observation. Its reliability was proven by statistics. The size of sampling is 150 persons of Chizar community inhabitants. The research method was factor analysis. The data analysis demonstrated that some non-visible factors could be derived from these design principles that people percept them in reality and were effective on sociability of people. The conclusion is that factors such as commercial activity, visual sight, seating furniture, pedestrianism, physical features of legibility are perceptible by Chizar community inhabitants. They believe these items encourage them to have social interaction with others.

20. Participatory Design Experience for a Milk Collecting Room of a Brazilian University Hospital

C. B. Patrícia, R. C. Maria, B. L. Maria, & B.M. Vera

In this project it’s presented a participatory design experience for the reform of a milk collecting room of a university hospital in southern Brazil. Workshops and participatory design methods were conducted, based on Environmental Psychology, to understand the desires and needs of the women who are breastfeeding, employees and escorts. Among the results, there are three guiding environmental attributes of the project: privacy, friendly environment and functionality. It’s fundamental to ensure visual privacy to women during the milking, safeguarding them from the eyes of others, by means of individual boxes. The friendly environment refers to a humanized and cozy ambiance, with attention to finishing and decorative elements. The functionality refers to environmental adequacy to the activities developed, by sectoring and careful planning of the furniture, to be flexible and efficient. Participative projects are rare in Brazil, mainly for demanding a longer design process, which can be impractical in urgent jobs or raise the costs of the service. However, this approach allowed the professionals a thorough understanding of the users environmental perception, while favoured the awareness of the users needs. It is believed that the users participation contributes to its identification with the final product and the project responsiveness.

21. The effect of scene content on implicit affect: artificial objects in natural landscapes with and without water

U. Pool

It is well established that people rate natural landscapes more highly than urban scenes on a variety of measures. Further, scenes containing water are most preferred. However, the majority of work investigating preference and perceived restorativeness of landscapes relies on explicit ratings; it is not known whether people’s implicit/automatic responses to scene-types follow the same pattern. This paper reports an implicit affective priming study investigating the impact of artificial objects on implicit attitudes towards natural scenes containing water (blue space). For comparison, natural scenes without water (green space), with and without artificial objects were also included. Results showed that implicit affective evaluations were more positive for natural scenes without artificial objects. Additionally, the negative impact of artificial objects was found to be significantly smaller for green space scenes than for blue space scenes. These results imply that affective evaluation of scenes happens as quickly and automatically as scene perception itself. The finding that the presence of artificial objects resulted in less positive implicit affect is congruent with work focusing on explicit ratings of scenes. The more negative impact of artificial objects on implicit affect when water was present may help constrain possible explanations for the widely-reported preference for blue space.

22. We shape our environments and they shape us° – but how?

S. Klettner, S. Seer, M. Roure, & C. Ratti

Human behavior in space is highly affected by the physical environment. While preferences for environmental characteristics and related decisions, such as approach and avoidance, have been well studied, real-time effects of ambient stimuli on pedestrian behavior have been widely unexplored. When better understanding the effects of ambient stimuli, design could be used to enhance individuals’ internal responses (i.e. affective, cognitive, and physiological responses) towards mobility infrastructures and to intentionally influence external responses (e.g. movement behavior) to optimize pedestrian flow. In this research, we study how pedestrian walking behavior in indoor environments is influenced by visual and acoustic stimuli. In particular, these stimuli are designed and tested in real-world case scenarios of different contexts and complexities. In these environments, pedestrian responses towards the stimuli are empirically studied with a multi-method approach: for collecting human movement characteristics such as walking speed and spacing, unobtrusive sensor technologies from computer vision are applied. These measurements are complemented by affective and cognitive responses from the pedestrians examined after being exposed to the visual and acoustic stimuli. Correlations of stimuli-organism-responses are analyzed. The findings are further discussed in terms of their implications in the field of urban design, mobility infrastructures, and microscopic simulation models.

23. Does driving to work in London affect psychological wellbeing?

S. Chng, C. Abraham, & M. White

The study explored the relationship between commute modes and psychological wellbeing in 2,756 London commuters using data from wave two of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (2010/2011). Independent-samples t-test revealed significantly higher psychological wellbeing scores in the General Health Questionnaire in outer-Londoners (M = 6.96, SD = 8.80) than inner-Londoners, M = 4.23, SD = 9.83; t (2754) = -7.67, p < .001. Chi-square tests for independence indicated significant commute pattern differences. Inner-Londoners reported higher levels of active travel (χ2 [1, n = 2,756] = 31.94, p < .001, phi = .108) and public transport (χ2 [1, n = 2,756] = 52.43, p < .001, phi = .138), and lower levels of car use (χ2 [1, n = 2,756] = 141.88, p < .001, phi = -.23). After accounting for socioeconomic characteristics and confounding variables, multiple hierarchical regressions revealed significant associations between active commuting in inner London (R2 change = .006, F change (1, 1050) = 7.04, p < .01), and driving (R2 change = .005, F change (1, 1524) = 7.24, p < .01) and taking the public transport (R2 change = .004, F change (1, 1524) = 6.08, p < .05) to work in outer London. The identified positive psychological wellbeing effects could potentially inform interventions promoting alternative commute modes in London.

24. Tree preferences in urbanites

M. Hofmann & T. Gerstenberg

Urban green spaces in general – and urban trees in particular – should be widely available and attractive to city residents in order to increase quality of life in cities. Considering rapidly increasing urbanization, urban green can be expected to become increasingly scarce, hence the remaining urban green elements should be as robust and cost-effective as possible. This contribution presents a psychological perspective to the selection of trees for urban areas. In the first of two studies, the visual features are identified which are relevant in laypeople’s perception of adult trees. These features are the distinction between conifers and deciduous trees, the crown shape, and the size of the crown in proportion to the length of the trunk. In a second study, such features were related to tree preferences. Preference could be predicted using a model containing the distinction between conifers and deciduous trees, the crown shape, and the maximum tree height. The preference prediction model was used to estimate preference values for all trees of a extensive tree database for moderate climates. Among other purposes, this database may be used to increase urban tree diversity while achieving a harmonious overall appearance of street trees. This is key in lowering the risk of losing many (or all) trees at once to pests or changes in climatic conditions.

25. Performance Evaluation of a Children’s Clinic in Germany

R. Walden, V. Grebe & G. Wüst

The design of buildings and interior rooms measurably influences people’s well-being. It can make people ill, or conversely even facilitate recovery processes. For this reason, architectural psychology plays an ever greater role in the planning and implementation of public buildings. A recent study yielded some interesting findings for the newly designed children’s clinic of the Marienhaus Clinic St. Elizabeth in Neuwied. A hefty investment of nearly 21 million Euros had gone into the hospital’s new bed area. To evaluate the performance of the renovation the planners consulted with the Bonn-based “Little Patients” association. The study was conducted in Summer 2012, which focused primarily on the period before the construction of the new areas and the renovation of the existing children’s and adolescent’s clinic that was originally constructed between 1960 and 1964. A second study, conducted in Winter 2012, examined the results of the newly constructed facilities. Through both studies the researchers are able to determine what the improvements were, and what stayed the same or even had gotten worse. Results were ascertained through survey questions. The surveys were completed by a total of 84 students over two semesters. In addition 76 employees and 67 patients were surveyed. The surveys scrutinized various areas of the children’s and adolescent’s clinic, such as, for example, the new outpatient clinic. The findings revealed that the new waiting rooms, which were negatively evaluated prior to the redesign, were now overwhelmingly viewed as positive. Despite the good evaluation overall, there were some points of criticism, such as the rather long distances between areas, the signage in the clinic, and the layout of play equipment. Other clinics can use these results as a tool in their planning.

26. Collective interest matters: Descriptive social norms influence materialistic intentions more strongly in the context of collective benefit

D. Sloot & T. Kurz

The present research examined the effect of descriptive social norms on (non-)materialistic intentions and behaviour, when these norms were aligned with a self-interest or collective interest value appeal. Participants (N = 149) filled out an experimental survey that manipulated both norm and value frame in a fictional newspaper article. Additionally, pre-existing underlying values were measured prior to manipulations. Results indicated that descriptive social norms have an effect on changing materialism in the predicted direction; however, a significant interaction effect suggested an effect of social norms on subsequent behavioural intentions only when the frame was appealing to collective interest. Conversely, pre-existing values did not moderate these effects in most cases. These findings suggest that environmental campaigns should emphasise collective (i.e. environmental) benefits, rather than self-interest, to be most effective.

27. Attitudes or Convenience?: A Survey on Factors Influencing Recycling Behaviour of University Students in Japan

S. Itoh

Efforts to promote recycling often emphasize educating residents but it is equally necessary to provide convenient recycling opportunities. Therefore the present study focused on practical aspects of recycling and aimed to identify effects of convenience on young people’s recycling behaviour. 270 university students responded to a questionnaire on recycling behaviour (focusing on plastic packaging and PET bottles), lifestyle, attitudes, and convenience. Convenience of recycling was measured in terms of frequency of curbside collection and distance to collection points. Recycling rate of PET bottles was high and was not affected by any of the factors studied: convenience, amount of consumption, and attitudes. Plastic packaging was recycled more when collection was frequent. Those who fail to recycle plastic packaging stated significantly more often that they run out of space in the house to store the waste. Attitudes had little correlation with actual recycling behaviours. Though moral was the strongest factor, it did not have effect on behaviour. Recycling of plastic packaging was affected only by the perception that others (neighbours, friends and family) recycle. The results suggest that convenience does encourage recycling and that whether recycling of a particular item is a normal behaviour, one recycles regardless practical conditions.

28. Effects of Pictures of Japanese Botanic Garden in Autumn on Psychological Aspects

A. Hatakeyama

The purpose of this study is to research the effects of pictures of forest and natural landscapes on subjects’ psychological aspects, using thirty selected pictures taken in the botanic garden of author’s university. In the experiments, University students as subjects were required to answer seventeen questions about the impressions of each picture. Results show that the pictures of forests and natural landscape including brown and red color in addition to mainly green one make subjects feel more beautiful, relaxing, clean, comfortable, and healed. It was discussed that: the pictures used in this study were taken in the short term of autumn between the beginning of October and November, so that they include states of plants changing according to the weather; because they could see few green leaves, there seemed to be a lot of pictures unlike the images of "nature" or "forest" which subjects have. In the future study, adopting pictures of plants and forest taken changes for the long term of every season, the detailed examination was pointed out in the evaluation of scenes.

29. Social acceptance of sustainable issues. A discourse analysis of how people speak about anaerobic digestion

A. Klarenbeek & M. Harmelink

For a successful energy transition, social acceptance of new technologies is essential. In order to gain insight into contributing factors, a discourse analysis was executed to answer the question: how do several parties speak about anaerobic digestion? Discourse analysis allows you to make underlying concerns and dilemmas of people more explicit. By doing so, you can be more in line with people’s sensitivities, in communications and policy. Both play crucial roles in facilitating the transition. The results show that there is no support among citizens for anaerobic digesters in residential areas. The relation between the municipalities and the residents is poor and asymmetric. The municipalities emphasize their role as experts, which leads to incomprehension. Furthermore, municipalities do not take responsibility and avoid confrontations, which contradicts Leeuwis & Aarts (2011) theory that argues explicitly about the importance of discussions when dealing with innovations.

30. Can Meditation Enhance the Restorative Effects of Nature?

Yong-Ju Lee &Chang-Seob Shin

Many recent research attentions have been in nature as a positive restorative environment, individuals’ role during interactions with his/her environments, and active role of meditation to enhance restoration during an individual’s interaction with nature. However, these areas have rarely been studied together experimentally. Therefore, this study examines the effects of meditation in nature on mood states and self-awareness using the Profile of Mood States-Brief and the Situational Self-Awareness Scale. The participants (52.44±6.16 years old), who have no experiences in meditation, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: walking group (WG) or walking meditation group (WMG).  Both groups took walks in forests, and two weeks later, they were assigned to the opposite group. When comparing between WMG and WG, the participants showed lower tension and depression while in WMG, along with higher private self-awareness but lower public self-awareness.  The results suggest that, as meditation focuses on the individual’s body, walking meditation awakens the body senses, and therefore, the body becomes more perceptive to various restorative effects of nature.