Campbell paradigm

J. Urban (I-184); L. Henn (chair); H. Škopková. Location: A2

Predicting proenvironmental behaviours: comparison of the theory of planned behaviour and Campbell's paradigm

J. Urban

The purpose of this study is to test two alternative hypotheses derived from Campbell's paradigm (Campbell, 1963; Kaiser, Byrka, & Hartig, 2010) and theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) concerning prediction of environmental behaviour. H1 (CP): Behaviour-based measure of conservation propensity (GEB) improves prediction of specific proenvironmental behaviour. H2 (TPB): Any effect of general propensity on specific proenvironmental behaviour is mediated by evaluative statements. Three panel surveys focusing on refraining from the purchase of bottled water (N1=864); switching of the PC in the stand-by mode (N2=863), and consumption of beef meat (N3=799) reveal that the effect of GEB on specific behaviours (measured two weeks later) is completely mediated by TPB variables. While TPB variables explains between 42% and 50% of the variance in behaviour, GEB explains about 4% of the variance. Variance explained by GEB increases only marginally when it predicts an aggregate of 10 specific behaviours. Our results support mediation effect expected by TPB (H2). Our results also show that although general propensity to protect the environment has an effect on diverse proenvironmental behaviours, it may not be a practical tool for prediction when a limited number of behaviours is targeted.

“I’m good, thanks” – Measurement of individual sufficiency within the Campbell paradigm

L. Henn & F. G. Kaiser

Promoting more efficient technologies more often than not sets the stage for rebound effects rather than actually reduce the energy consumption of societies (see Otto, Kaiser, & Arnold, 2014). Expectedly, only a self-directed propensity to waive some of the available amenities in modern societies will eventually lead to more sufficient and less consumptive lifestyles in individuals and societies alike. Such a propensity does not need supervision, lasts over time, and incorporates a wide range of behaviors. In our research using cross-sectional survey data, we developed a Campbellian measure of individual sufficiency (for details on the Campbell paradigm, see e.g., Kaiser, Byrka, & Hartig, 2010). Our sample consists of 177 residents of Germany (mean age: 27.6; female proportion: 62.7%). Our new measure consists of various types of approx. 70 indicators: self-reported behaviors, evaluative statements, and beliefs. Overall, the scale’s formal features (i.e., fit statistics, internal consistency, reliability) are all acceptable. We also found in a new study that individuals high on sufficiency—as expected—more likely abstained from a consumption opportunity, apparently revealing a tendency to forego personal utility.

Testing Campbell's paradigm: are people with conservation attitudes willing to surmount higher hurdles of micro-generation technology adoption?

H. Škopková & J. Urban

Adoption of micro-generation technologies by households increases share of renewable energy in the residential energy mix. Yet, introduction of these technologies is hindered by many barriers, price being one of the most important (Achtnicht, 2011; Allen et al., 2008; Caird and Roy, 2010; Claudy et al., 2011; Scarpa and Willis, 2010). Building on the Campbel's paradigm (Campbell, 1963; Kaiser et al., 2010), we hypothesize that people with higher conservation attitudes are willing to surmount higher hurdles associated with adoption of micro-generation technologies. We conduct an experiment on a sample of general population (N=3200) in which we present to each participant one of 8 microgeneration technologies (photovoltaics, solar thermal, hybrid solar, wind turbines, CHP on biomass or gas, heat pump and hydrogen fuel cell) and ask him whether he would be willing to adopt it for given cost. The cost of the technology is varied randomly. We find that people with stronger conservation attitudes are willing to pay more for micro-generation technologies. As expected by Campbell's paradigm, people with stronger environmental attitudes are willing to surmount higher price-related barriers associated with adoption of micro-generation technologies.